The impact of dust storms on human health has been well described in Asian and European countries. Several research studies have examined adverse health outcomes attributable to dust and dust storm events, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, across these and other developed countries. Despite an increasing number of dust storm events plaguing the Middle East attributable to climate change, little is presently understood about the effects of dust storms on the health of human populations residing in this region. This review sought to identify and assess what is currently understood about the health impacts of dust storms in the Middle East. A systematic review was designed and conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar. Out of 534 articles identified, 16 met predetermined eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Our review identified a number of health consequences associated with dust events in the region of interest, existing gaps in available literature, vulnerable populations, and directions for future research.